Impact of EDUSAT on School Students and Teachers
Phalachandra Bhandigadi, NCERT,
Government of India launched the Educational Satellite (EDUSAT) in September 2004, which is expected to revolutionise the Distance Education Programmes in the country. Different Pilot Projects under EDUSAT are proposed on experimental basis in four States the country for understanding the process and implication of Satellite based Education Programme in different sectors. Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh and Maharastra are the four States where EDUSAT programme are implemented in the current year. In each of these States a particular target and area has been identified for utilization of EDUSAT .In Karnataka the focus and the target group includes Students and Teachers of Elementary and Secondary Education. Also included in the target group are Teacher Educators and supervisory personnel
2.0 IMPLEMENTING AGENCIES
Different agencies have been identified in Karnataka for implementing the EDUSAT Project. The State council of Educational Research and Training is entrusted with the responsibility for the development of Software, Teacher Training, Monitoring & Evaluation and overall implementation of the project. Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), Serva Siksha Abhiyan (SSA) are also involved in the implementation the Programme. Each of these agencies was entrusted with certain tasks for facilitating the implementation.
3.0 EDUSAT PROJECT IN KARNATAKA
In Karnataka it was proposed to utilize the Technology to improve the quality of Education at the Elementary and Secondary Schools .In the first Phase all the Primary Schools of Chamarajanagar, District and Kenchanahalli Hobli of HD Kote Block (Mysore District),
In all, about 840 Primary Schools had the facilities to receive the quality Video Programmes through the Direct Reception Systems (DRS), and a Television Set
By implementation of EDUSAT in Primary Schools it was proposed:
working in Multi-level and Multi grade Context
4.0 INSTALLATION OF HARDWARE.
The UPLINK facility was established in DSERT, Bangalore (the capital city of the State) and down link facility in all the Primary Schools of Chamarajanagar district The downlink facility provided in schools are provided with solar power facility, which takes care of the frequent power problems
5.1 Production of Software or Content
The DSERT had the system developed for preparing the scripts for Radio Programme) “KELI-KALI., (Listen and Learn which was started in 2000-01 in two Karnataka Districts later on expanded to cover about 50,000 Schools of the State in 2003-04 . In this scheme a group of teachers in association with Teacher educators had identified difficult areas in different subjects of grades III to VII, which was the basis for development of audio scripts. Based on this experience the State constituted a group of experts for identifying areas in indifferent subjects, which has the potential for video programmes.
The State advertised in the Local News Papers calling tenders from different agencies /institutions, who had the experiences of producing video programmes. From among the tenders submitted by different agencies an expert committee short-listed about 20 agencies. These 20 agencies were invited for one-day discussion along with some selected scriptwriters. In the discussion the expert committee explained the objectives of the EDUSAT project, highlighted the type and nature of video programmes, the duration and also the rules being followed for the final selection of the programme. It was also informed that $ 150 would be paid if the programmes finally approved by the committee. Each programme was reviewed at two levels once at the script level and secondly after the production. In the beginning the expert committee met on almost every week for reviewing the script and the video films. After discussion among the committee members, each producer was called for the discussion where in the members gave their feedback and suggested modifications, where ever required.. . After modifications the agencies were asked to resubmit the video films for final approval.
The details of grade- subject wise videos produced and broadcast during the Academic year 2005-06 are given in the following table.
Number of films produced, approved and included for broadcast during the Three Semester Period (2005-06)
A total 172 Video films were broadcast during the year beginning from 13th June 2005 to 13 March 2006 in three semesters of the academic year. As could be seen certain integrated programmes were developed and broadcast for combination of grades.
5.2 Development of Teachers Handbook
To facilitate the effective use of EDUSAT programme by teachers, a handbook for each of the semester was brought out and distributed to all the schools. The handbook highlighted/covered issues such as schedule of broadcast (date/time/grade wise topics), the objectives of each film, content/issues covered, the pre and post broadcast activities to be carried out etc. Also included is the person to be contacted in case of system (receiving system), contact numbers all the district, and block and cluster officials
5.3 Orientation of Teachers
Teacher Educators and supervisory staff at the sub district levels were given orientation about the EDUSAT. They in turn provided training/orientation to teachers of all the Schools of District.
6.0 IMPACT OF THE PROJECT
In view of the efforts made by the State in the implementation of the Programme an attempt was made to assess the effectiveness and impact made on students and teachers. Based on the objectives of the Project
7.0 EVALUATION STRATEGIES
7.1 Evaluation Design
The evaluation of the EDUSAT project was envisaged at different levels/dimensions
At the first level getting the feedback of students and teachers on the films, secondly the impact the films made on students at the knowledge and understanding of content transacted and thirdly how the programmes influences the attendance pattern.
7.2 Impact on Students
7.2.1 Field Testing of Few selected Video Films
Four video films were field tested to find the effectiveness of the programme on their performance and also to get the reactions. While students were seeing the films their viewing behavior was observed. 41 students of III to VI Standards drawn from different schools of Chamarajanagar town participated in viewing the films.
The following FOUR Video films were identified for field-testing
Arrangements for screening the films in two separate rooms were made. The students of VII & VIII were combined and the remaining students were made to sit in the other room. The pre-test and post- test scores (maximum possible score of 10 for each test) for each of the film was collected separately and analyzed to find the difference in the mean scores and its significance
Table showing the Mean Scores obtained in Pre- Post and it's significance
From the table above one could see
With respect two films of grade V and one film of grade IV
b) Observation and Oral Feedback from the Students
7.2.2 Response to Questions Based on Films
A group of investigators were given training in collecting feedback from the students on the video films they will be watching during EDUSAT broadcast.
About 30 films were broadcast between 7-21 Jan 2005. During this period the investigators visited schools and took feedback from the students. At the end of the transmission film the investigators asked a set of questions framed on the basis of films viewed. Most of the students were able to answer most of the questions asked.
7.2.3 Impact on Achievement
A set of achievement tests were developed keeping in view the films being broadcast during the period. Twenty-two films in all were viewed ffor developing the achievement test. The number of films viewed were 8 in Mathematics, 5 in Science, 5 in Social science and 4 in General category.
About 10 multiple- choice items were developed for each film keeping in view the content covered and objectives envisaged to be achieved by the films. The finalizations of items were done after thorough discussion among 3 members of the team. . From among the items developed a set of items were selected for inclusion in the achievement Test. Care was taken not include more than 4 to 5 item per films, though about 10 items were developed for each film. The Pre test data was collected in March first week and Posttest data in the last week of March/first week of April 2005. The details of scores obtained by students is given in the following table
No. of Items included in the Tests which were administered to Students of Control and Experimental Schools (Common tests for Classes IV and V )
The data obtained from the students of about 10 schools were consolidated and presented below..
The mean difference in the Achievement of students is statistically significant.
7.2.4 Impact on Attendance
One of the objectives of the Evaluation Study is to check whether the EDUSAT has made any impact on the attendance pattern of students. In this connection, a schedule was developed to note down the number of students present in the school against the number enrolled. Visits were made to the schools in the month of Feb 2006 without advance information to school authorities. The details of students enrolled and present is given in the following table below. From the table it could be noticed in most of the occasions the attendance was almost 80%
Number of Students Enrolled and Present during the visits of Investigators to Schools
7.3 Feedback from Teachers.
Feed back from teachers was collected through a questionnaire and followed by focus group discussion. About 40 teachers ,one teacher representing one school was invited to 5 sub district centers . In all about 168 participated in the discussion. Their feedback with respect the programme was collected and consolidated .The over all opinion of teachers are given below.
The launch of EDUSAT has helped in providing quality instruction through video programmes to students studying in the interior villages. The students have benefited from the video programmes delivered through the Satellite. The benefit gained is in terms
of gain in knowledge and understanding of the content, improvement in attendance and holding attention and interest in viewing programmes. The teacher involvement during the broadcast as facilitator and conduct of Pre and Post broadcast activity is note worthy.